The web wasn’t always the massive, interactive sprawl it is today.
When it was first created, it was basically just a collection of hyperlinked documents and the beginnings of its interactivity started in the early 2000s with the hype of “Web 2.0”. From the early IRC chat boards and plain HTML pages, the Internet evolved to its current form, in which users can shop, email, work and collaborate, all through the use of web apps such as Gmail, Twitter, Google Docs, Slack and Trello.
Some of these apps allowed collaboration or traditional desktop apps to move online, while others such a Slack and Twitter’s embeds, retained the nature of a hyperlinked document.
Despite the interactivity they’ve added to the web, the golden rule of web apps is that the native version is probably better.
However, the web is a constantly evolving thing, and certain upcoming web technologies could give native apps a run for their money.
Progressive Web Apps
PWAs also support push notifications and other background work thanks to ‘service workers’ which sync local changes to remote servers and cache new content – meaning the app is as up-to-date as a web app, but as responsive as a native one.
The best example of a progressive web app right now is the Twitter Lite client which is minimal, fast and comes with a toggle to minimize data usage.
Though Microsoft’s February announcement of Windows’ support for progressive web apps made a big splash, iOS added PWA support in Safari 11.3, meaning they can be created and shipped to Chrome OS, Windows, Android and iOs.
The caveat at the moment is that Google and Apple seem to have different visions for how much a progressive web app should be capable off, and Apple’s support standards are scattered and incomplete.
One of the benefits of WebAssembly is not having to learn an entirely new programming language, as high performance code written in C and C++ can be compiled to WebAssembly, with even Unreal Engine and Unity having been ported to WebAssembly.
While many web technology proposals can sometimes get stuck in standards committees for years, or only enjoy spotty support, WebAssembly is already supported and shipped by all major browsers apart from Internet Explorer, and who uses that anyway?
Though not many people say that native apps look better than websites, it is a fact that they do look different, and even if PWAs performed just as well as native apps, they would still look and feel like a website because web apps are limited by their CSS and HTML.
One of the web technologies that has, unfortunately been stuck in standards committees for years, Houdini is a set of features that would allow developers to talk directly to a browser’s CSS rendering engine. Rather than creating a set of style rules and letting the browser handle it, Houdini would allow developers to create custom styles, animations and layouts.
To understand just how powerful this might be, look at Google’s Flutter app development framework. Flutter simulates the feel of native apps with pixel-perfect accuracy, though it’s not for websites, it’s for making Android, iOS and Fuchsia apps. Fuschia uses the Skia graphics library, the same engine that powers Chrome’s browser rendering to do that styling and animation.
When creating a website, the content is defined an HTML and the style in CSS, but rendering engines such as Skia paint the pixels – meaning you can tell the browser to create a blue circle, but it’s up to Skia to decide how.
Houdini’s code will coexist with traditional CSS, providing another option should you need something to look a specific way.
Unfortunately, most of Houdini’s specs are still in the air and only Chrome allows you to test many of the ideas, but if web apps are ever to mimic the feel of native apps, Houdini is probably how.
Progressive Web Apps offer home screen icons, push notifications and offline support
WebAssembly provides native or near-native performance
Houdini will provide the fancy style
What About Native APIs?
Native apps will always have a place, and native apps can take advantage of platform-specific advantages from Google’s Visual Core chip, Apple’s ARKit, native graphics APIs and all the other features which keep operating systems competitive.
However, for apps that value convenience and ubiquity, web apps are set to grow in both number and importance., though it’s difficult to predict which next-gen web apps are set to make the biggest impact.
While Twitter Lite is a prime example of Progressive Web Apps, lightweight WebAssembly-built games might soon be everywhere.